Retinal imaging is now the solution for diagnosing many eye problems. With the technological development of different medical sciences and numerous studies, it appears that retinal imaging is the safest for the eye because by using pupillary drops, it is possible to investigate various diseases.
Retinal imaging is a diagnostic test that is performed by photography, and its function is to work on obtaining multiple images of the "fundus" and "retina" in what is called a simple investigation method to detect various diseases that affect the retina, such as macular degeneration. Associated with aging, diabetic retinopathy, or retinitis pigmentosa.
Imaging the retina is considered very safe because it is not harmful to the eye, and does not cause any problems. To clarify, we must know some things about the eye and the different issues; this is what we reveal through the following lines.
What is the retina?
In order to know more about retinal imaging, the most important question must be answered: What is the retina? It is a thin layer that lines the back of the eye but is located near the eye's optic nerve, responsible for sight.
The retina is made up of millions of photosensitive cells (tubular and conical cells); They are the neurons that are largely responsible for and organizing visual information, through which information can be sent to the brain through the optic nerve, thereby giving the person the ability to see.
What does the retina do?
The retina transforms the nerve signals collected by the lens of the eye from light and sends these signals to the brain until the image is recognized. The cells of the retina treat light, then translate, collect, and give information on the intensity of color and light, and then send it to the optic nerve and from it to the brain.
The retina has a vital role to see, so any bleeding that occurs in the retina can lead to vision loss.
Although the retina is essential because it is responsible for vision; However, it is characterized by sensitivity and frequent exposure to various problems. So many diseases can affect the retina, and the most prominent are as follows:
Rupture of the retina: This disease occurs as a result of the shrinking of transparent material, similar to the "gel" in the center of the eye, and consequently, the rupture of the retina occurs.
Retinal detachment: The leading cause of this disease is the presence of fluid below the retina. This usually happens when the fluid passes through the retinal tear, which causes the retina to move away from the underlying tissue layers, thus lead to retinal detachment.
Diabetic retinopathy: This disease affects people with "diabetes." Due to the weakness of the small blood vessels (capillaries) that are located at the back of the eye and the fluid leaks into the retina and below it. But this disease leads to swelling of the retina, and thus blurring and blurring of vision, and can lead to retinal bleeding and poor vision at the end.
The membrane is above the retina: This disease is a simple scar that resembles sensitive tissues or the "wrinkled cellophane" membrane, where it forms above the retina, but its harm is that it attracts the reticular membrane to it, and thus leads to blurred vision.
Macular puncture: It is the result of a small defect in the center of the retina at the back of the eye (macula), which is a puncture that occurs due to abnormal drawing between the retina and vitreous, and it can also happen after an eye injury.
Macular degeneration: The disease occurs due to the condition of macular degeneration, where weakness begins to occur at the center of the retina.
Retinitis pigmentosa: Retinitis pigmentosa is a degenerative disease of the retina.
Causes of retinal bleeding
Many different causes lead to retinal hemorrhage, as the patient may have other diseases. This leads to retinal hemorrhages in the end, such as leukemia, anemia, high blood pressure, diabetes, and swelling of the blood vessels in the retina or the case of macular degeneration... Car accidents and severe head accidents also lead to retinal hemorrhage and also occur for people who have mountaineering and diving hobbies because of the change in air pressure at the top of the mountains and underwater. Some eye diseases can lead to retinal hemorrhage.
Symptoms of Retinal Infiltrate
Retinal diseases are multiple in their symptoms, but all of them ultimately lead to Retinal Infiltrate, yet some signs reveal Retinal Infiltrate, as follows:
Seeing floating spots or strings like cobweb leads inside the eye.
Blurring or blurring of vision by being straight or wavy lines.
Side vision defects or complete loss of vision.
How can retinal hemorrhage be diagnosed?
Although accurate retinal imaging is used to diagnose retinal hemorrhage, It is not the only way to diagnose, there are some other methods, and they are as follows:
Blood tests: By performing different blood tests, it is possible to detect if there is bleeding from the retina or not, and the tests also reveal the causes of bleeding.
Vision examination: By examining the level of vision, it is possible to know whether there is bleeding in the retina or not, as bleeding obviously affects vision.
Ultrasound: Ultrasound can be done to diagnose retinal hemorrhage.
Retinal imaging: There is no doubt that the most prominent way to find out if there is bleeding in the retina in a very safe and accurate way through retinal imaging, where the test is done through photography that is conducted to examine the bottom of the eye to obtain cross-sectional images of the «bottom of the eye» and «retina Eye." Retinal imaging can also detect multiple and multiple diseases that affect the retina.
What is the difference between retinal imaging with or without injection?
Retinal imaging is a simple, painless, and completely safe test. It is a gentle scan of the fundus eye through the laser beam that passes through the retinal layers, but this scan is done through two methods of injection or without, what is the difference between them?
Retinal imaging without injection: It is done by placing different drops on the eye, and then the retinal imaging is done through an OCT optical coherence tomography. Still, it is faulty that it is sometimes inaccurate.
Retinal imaging with injection: is done by injecting a substance called "sodium fluorescein" into the vein in the arm or hand, which is a type of contrast material, and is given at a rate of 2: 5 cm2, where it is concentrated in the blood vessels, then it works through the retina and the placenta of the eye On expanding the pupil of the eye to facilitate examination and detection of the retina, after which the imaging is performed by an OCT-optical coherence tomography.
Upon detection, the patient sits in front of the camera of the retinal imaging, and several snapshots of the retina are taken. Then they are injected again with "fluorescent sodium" after completing the imaging.
How does retinal imaging happen? This question, which is in the minds of any person before conducting this examination; Due to the tomography of the retina and its relationship to injection with the substance «sodium fluorescein. »
This article is (contrast material) that helps in photographing and documenting blood flow by the placenta and retina. This substance has an active role in the integrity of the blood barrier in the retina so that no damage to the eye occurs when photographing the retina; in addition to that it helps in accurate diagnosis of the retina after pupil enlargement.
Eye injection method
The importance of this substance appears in the injection when snapshots are taken of images of the retina, of different colors, including stained or white and black before injection. After injection and the arrival of «sodium fluorescence» to the blood circulation and the expansion of the pupil of the eye are taken, a series of black and white images of the retina the eye then appears in the retinal tissue detection and is fully visible.
It is known that a photo is taken at a rate of once every 20 seconds, and images are also taken every 5 minutes and 10 minutes. Thus the rate of taking pictures decreases with time, and the best images are those that are captured in black and white, which gives a better contrast to the retina.
Computed tomography by injection with "sodium fluorescein" also gives other advantages. Images of the blood vessels in the retina, the placenta, the optic nerve, and the iris are taken. Diabetic impairment (widening of the blood vessels) can be detected, in addition to the detection of obstruction. The vein in the retina, blockage of the artery in the retina, infiltration of the optic nerve, and the presence of tumors or not in the retina.
Treatment of retinal diseases varies depending on the cause and the patient's condition; The treatment is determined if the disease or bleeding is stopped or slow, to preserve the patient's look, especially in the presence of some retinal diseases that lead to vision loss in the patient. The treatment of the retina is often considered complicated and requires surgical intervention...
Methods of treatment of retinal diseases
After performing the retinal imaging, the disease that affects the retina is known, and the treatment journey begins. There are many ways in which the disorders of the retinal hemorrhage can be treated, as follows:
Laser use: With laser surgery, the retinal tear or perforation can be repaired with high precision and a completely safe method.
Abnormal vascular contractions: With the advancement of technology, this method has emerged and is the healthiest method known in the treatment of retinal diseases. It is carried out by laser light scattering dispersed to shrink new abnormal blood vessels that are bleeding or at risk of bleeding in the eye. This type is suitable for people with diabetes or people with diabetic retinopathy because it has nothing to do with surgeries those patients of such conditions fear.
Freezing: This method is known to depend on fixing the retina via cold. The surgeon sets a freezing pathway in the wall extending to the eye from the treatment of retinal tear, but it must be intense when entering the eye to work to freeze the retina, and thus can be treated Diseases.
Injecting air or gas into the eye: This method is known to rely on fixing the air retina, where doctors use such a method when repairing certain types of retinal detachment, and can also be used in conjunction with the method of fixing the retina with freezing or laser photocoagulation.
Ocular surface electrode: It is a surgical procedure that is carried out through the curving of the sclera. Doctors use it to repair the retinal detachment. Through this method, the surgeon installs a small piece of silicon outside the surface of the eye (sclera) and treats the problem in the eye.
Evacuating and replacing the eye fluid: This process is called "vitrectomy," where the surgeon removes the liquid-like "gel" that fills inside the eye, after which the eye is injected with air, gas or liquid into the empty space to replace the fluid in which the problem is, this treatment is used in people with a retinal tear, diabetic retinopathy, macular perforation, eye infections, eye trauma, or retinal detachment.
Eye medication injection: The most straightforward way to use retinal diseases is to inject a vitreous into the eye. This method is effective in treating many diseases, as it can be used with people with wet macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, or broken blood vessels in the eye.
Eye injection types
Although syringes are used in retinal imaging; there are other uses for injections, too, in the treatment of various eye diseases, which are often used. Due to the fear of a large number of the disease to undergo surgery or the presence of medical conditions, the problem can be solved and treated only by injection. Still, even eye injections are types; they are as follows:
Antibiotic injections work to treat retinal infections, and in such cases, use drugs such as "anti-VEGF," which is an antibiotic for the growth of the endothelium vessels.
Other types of injections are used in the treatment of retinal diseases, such as "Afilpercet," "bevacizumab," "AvastinR", and "LucentisR", where these drugs work to treat macular degenerative macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and occlusion of blood vessels in the retina. .
Cortisone injections can be taken to treat infections that occur inside the eye, such as uveitis and macular edema.
How is the injection performed? It is inside the operating room and under the influence of local anesthesia of the eye, and before the injection is done, the eye must be completely sterile and clean. Usually, the injection process is fast and painless, but sometimes the patient feels some pain after completing the injection.
What are the effects of an injection? After the procedure, the patient may feel the presence of a foreign body inside the eye and pressure on the eye that causes some discomfort, perhaps some pain that is mild and fades over time. Sometimes the subconjunctival bleeding or symptoms of the fly may appear, but will also disappear over time.
What is the implant of the retina? Eye implantation is one of the most prominent procedures used for people who have severe loss of vision or blindness altogether due to retinal disease, and this surgery is known as "artificial retinal implantation."
Instructions after an eye injection
Although most eye injections are safe and straightforward, they may cause some mild pain; some guidelines must be taken into consideration after an eye injection. They are as follows:
Not to touch the eye with touch or itch when feeling a black spot, or a feeling of pain in the eye, or the presence of an object in the eye, or even some slight bleeding, because all of these symptoms will disappear with time.
If any eye infections occur after the injection, you should contact the doctor, who will most likely prescribe some treatment drops to get rid of these effects.
Avoid pollutants and dust after the 48-hour injection.
Continuous monitoring after the injection procedure and the obligation to take medications regularly.
Refrain from driving, exposure to the sun, or bright light.
Avoid eye contact with water or swimming for several days until the eye has fully recovered.