Premature Babies and Eye Problems
Premature Babies and Eye Problems
Some children are born with congenital eye defects, and others are exposed to various eye diseases during childhood due to multiple factors, and this requires a diagnosis of the condition; Through examination with various technical devices, and then determine the appropriate options for treatment according to each individual case, we will review in our article the most critical eye diseases affecting children and premature infants, and methods of eye examination in children.
What are common eye diseases in children?
Negatives accompany myopia in seeing distant objects. One of the most prominent reasons for this occurs: genetic genetics and the cornea not being curved equally, and in light of this, there are refractive errors of light.
Hyperopia is the inability to see nearby things. The reasons for this are due to several factors, such as corneal flatness, or genetic factors, or because of the reduced concentration of light radiation in the natural place.
Strabismus is a temporary or permanent defect of the eye, where a person cannot correctly indicate the visible object as when using the natural eye, strabismus affects one eye, or two, and this disease occurs 3% in children. If it is left without treatment, 50% of people with alcohol may lose vision completely.
There are different types of strabismus in children, as strabismus may be inward, and that type is called "esotropia," which is the most common type. Strabismus may occur as a result of external rotation. It is known in this case as "wild strabismus," and there is a kind of strabismus up, Known as hypertropia, and another down, and it is known as hypotropia.
Strabismus occurs as a result of defects in the eye muscles, and the mechanism of this occurrence is still being studied. Among the risk factors that increase the chance of strabismus in children are the following:
Genetic disorders: Genetic disorders are among the most critical factors in strabismus in children, such as infection with Down syndrome.
Cerebral palsy: occurs in children during pregnancy and leads to many faults, including deficiencies in the child's development, strabismus, deafness, imperfect speech, and motor coordination problems.
Low weight: If the baby is born less than usual, this is among the risk factors that can cause strabismus in children.
Tumor injury: Infection of the child with some tumors, such as retinoblastoma, may cause an opportunity to develop amblyopia.
Drinking alcohol: Drinking alcoholic beverages during pregnancy leads to a newborn infection in alcoholic child syndrome. Strabismus is among the complications of this syndrome.
Family history: if one of the parents or relatives of the first degree is infected with the disease; the child becomes vulnerable to strabismus.
Poor vision: Severe visual impairment may lead to a refractive error or blackout in the eye's lens, and among the complications of this is strabismus in children.
Strabismus in children can be treated by using glasses, contact lenses, or external intervention to restore the normal eye shape. Treatment can also be done by performing eye exercises.
Tear duct obstruction in children:
Some children suffer in the postpartum period from supportive secretions, which happen according to medical studies of one child among every fifteen children. The reason is the Tear duct obstruction. The normal position is that the lacrimal gland located under the upper eyelid produces and discharges tears through some small pores on the outskirts of the lower eyelid that are close to the nose. Tears come out of the pores through tiny channels; they collect in the tear sac, and are drained.
Signs of a Tear duct obstruction are excessive tears, permanent moisture in the eye, redness in the eyes, and purulent discharge.
Most cases of Tear duct obstruction in children heal on their own; where the blockage naturally goes away with growth, doctors advise parents to be patient in the early stages of the child's life, with the use of wet cotton and cleaning the eyelids. In the case of persistent purulent secretions, the doctor can pass a set of drops to open the blockage and get rid of infections.
If a year has passed after birth with no treatment medications ineffective, the doctor can perform surgery to open the lacrimal duct. A limited anesthetic is used, and then a thin tube is inserted that ends with a balloon to open the blockage, and there are no risks from performing this operation. The results are high, and if the problem persists after the surgical intervention, It is possible to implant an artificial tear duct from silicon.
Lazy eyes are defined as a decrease in the visibility of one of the eyes, and the reason the eye develops abnormally in the early stages of life, and this occurs in the period from birth until the age of seven and leads to a poor vision in one or both eyes.
Lazy eye disease occurs as a result of disturbances in the nerve pathways between the retina and the brain. This may be caused by a difference in the vision strength between the eyes or imbalance in the muscles, and that affects the position of the eyes. The imbalance may be a reversal of the outside or inside, leading to a lack of consistency Motion between the eyes, as well as among the causes of the occurrence of cataracts (cataract).
Among the risk factors that cause pixel eye injury are genetic factors, premature birth, and abnormal baby weight.
The main symptoms of a lazy eye are: tilt the head, closing one eye, the asymmetry between the eyes at work, and the presence of an eye that moves out or inside.
Various treatment methods can be used to solve lazy eye problems, including:
Wearing glasses or contact lenses: helps treat nearsightedness, farsightedness, or astigmatism.
Using a bangerter filters: The bangerter filters is placed on the lens in front of the strong eye and makes vision blurry, and the purpose is to rest the weak eye.
Eye bands can be used to rest the lazy eye, as the child wears the gang on a strong eye for two to six hours, according to the attending physician's opinion.
The use of eye drops the mechanism of the action of the eye droplet-like; as the vision becomes opaque for the strong eye, the child can use the drops daily or weekly, which helps to activate the weak eye.
Eye exercises: Doctors explain a set of exercises that help strengthen the eye with laziness.
Surgical intervention: The surgical intervention aims to treat people with Lazy eye caused by cataracts, or eyelid dropping if other treatments aren't successful.
Children suffer from various types of eye infections, the most prominent of which are eyelid and conjunctivitis, and this occurs as a result of exposure to some types of bacteria or bacteria, and symptoms can be recognized by noticing red-eye in contrast to the natural white color, as well as abnormal secretions through the eye, in addition to excessive tears, as well as swelling, swelling and dehydration, and the most prominent types of viruses that cause these infections are the bacterium Bacillus glaucoma and herpes simplex, and infections can also occur as a result of an allergy, or exposure to air pollutants; Like smoke or dust.
Eye growth deficiency:
It is one of the congenital diseases, where eye development occurs during the stage of fetal development, and this appears in the absence of the optic nerve, or an abnormal smallness in the size of the eyes, or defects in the iris, often the lack of growth leads to vision loss.
Nystagmus disease is among the eye diseases that affect children, where the eye moves involuntarily, and in this case it is called "blinking eyes," and nystagmus may occur when there is confusion for some people, and this disease can be treated through contact lenses, or some medications Therapeutic, or surgical intervention.
It is an optical aberration; where those affected by this disease see the images in an unclear way, resulting from the cornea not being rotated naturally and then the focus of the eye before the retina.
The retinoblastoma mainly affects the pediatric group, which is an anomaly in the growth of retinal cells. The disease may occur in one or both eyes, and rarely affects adults.
One of the main symptoms of retinoblastoma is swelling in the eye with a white color in the pupil.
Retinoblastoma arises as a result of the abnormal growth of neurons that make up retinal tissues, resulting in mutations after the death of normal cells, which leads to the presence of tumor conglomerate, and often the tumor is formed as a result of genetic factors.
Complications of retinoblastoma in children are vision impairment, and vision loss may occur if treatment is neglected.
Retinoblastoma can be diagnosed by examining the eye bed, using X-rays, and magnetic resonance waves.
There is more than one treatment method for retinoblastoma, the most prominent of which are: drug therapy, radiotherapy, laser treatment, and surgical intervention.
Retinopathy in premature infants:
What is meant by the premature baby?
A premature baby is known as a child born early 37 weeks ago. Premature babies suffer from an incomplete growth in their organs, as doctor’s measure the usual delivery period between 37-40 weeks. Medical studies indicate that 12% of babies are born before their normal appointment, and some of them don't have any problems in the case of premature birth.
The causes of early childbirth are unknown, but there are a set of risk factors that make there an opportunity for the birth of children before their natural dates, including early marriage for boys, as well as in the case of suffering from high blood pressure, heart disease, or preeclampsia, Kidney disease, infections in the womb, or exposure to smoking.
Among the most prominent incomplete organs in a premature or premature baby are the digestive system, the immune system, the lungs, the liver, the eye, the kidneys, and the brain.
The nature of retinopathy in preterm infants: Retinopathy of prematurity, or another term Terry syndrome, is represented by the occurrence of anomalous vascular growth in the eye, where the blood vessels grow towards the edges, this occurs several weeks before birth. No Vascular growth is naturally complete, and if vascular growth is completed naturally, retinopathy doesn’t occur to the premature baby. Still, in the case of branching or abnormal growth, the child develops retinopathy of prematurity.
Causes of retinopathy in premature infants: the retina begins to form blood vessels in the fetus in the fourth month of pregnancy. Natural growth doesn’t occur for unknown reasons. Some studies show that some rare cases suffer from retinopathy in prematurity that occurs as a result of a mutation in one of the genes defined in the name of NDP. This disease affects only males, and in some very rare cases affects females. That gene is the cause of Norrie disease, which is one of the genetic diseases that affect the eye. The disease may cause vision loss, and various congenital disabilities are accompanying it.
The risk factors for the chance of developing retinopathy in preterm infants are:
Congenital heart defects.
Viral or bacterial infection.
Exposure to high levels of oxygen.
The birth of babies early.
The method of treatment of a premature baby depends on his condition, and therapeutic drugs, intravenous retinal injection, or laser therapy can be used.
How can eye examination in premature babies and children?
At this stage, the premature baby's eyes can be examined by the slit lamp, which enlarges the eye. Through this, the cilia, eyelids, cornea, pupil, lens, and chambers of the lacrimal fluid between the pupillary and cornea can be examined.
After the age of three:
Children can undergo a comprehensive eye examination between the third and fifth stages, and is used to:
Eye muscle examination: The eye muscle examination is among the most prominent tests used to diagnose eye diseases in children; through this, the eye movements of the child are monitored. The doctor requests the child to follow a moving object with his eyes, and then learn to identify weaknesses in the eye muscles.
The tangential screen: It is a screen in which the child sits, and focuses the eye on a target at the center of the screen, followed by the doctor moving a body. The child must inform the doctor when seeing the body move, or when it disappears, and this is considered among the crucial ways to examine the eye in children.
Light refraction evaluation test: The refractive error results from the failure of light through the lens and cornea to the eye's focus, and this can be detected through the light refraction evaluation test, and accordingly, the glasses or lens appropriate for the child are identified.
Imaging-visual imaging examination: The OCT imaging examination is one of the most critical tests for children in the retina. It helps discover defects of the retina, whether its thickness, abnormal blood vessels, or macular degeneration.
Confrontational visual field test: The purpose of a confrontational visual field test is to identify the integrity of the child's field of vision. The doctor covers the child's eye, asking him to look forward, and the doctor moves his hand in the vicinity of the child's field of vision, and the doctor requests the child to inform him when seeing the doctor's hand.