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Optical coherence tomography

Optical coherence tomography Optical correlation tomography, one of the techniques used to photograph the retina, and is symbolized briefly by the symbol "OCT." This technique includes two types of light waves, the aim of which is accuracy in imaging, and the determination of the details of the retina affected by some defects, which helps to examine the front and back part from the eye and the appropriate diagnosis and to determine treatment options in subsequent stages. This technique is similar to computerized tomography imaging devices, magnetic resonance imaging, and some describe OCT imaging with ultrasound, as it helps to detect internal tissues,...

Optical coherence tomography

Optical correlation tomography, one of the techniques used to photograph the retina, and is symbolized briefly by the symbol "OCT." This technique includes two types of light waves, the aim of which is accuracy in imaging, and the determination of the details of the retina affected by some defects, which helps to examine the front and back part from the eye and the appropriate diagnosis and to determine treatment options in subsequent stages. This technique is similar to computerized tomography imaging devices, magnetic resonance imaging, and some describe OCT imaging with ultrasound, as it helps to detect internal tissues, and with more explicit details of 10 microns.


Pivotal information about Optical correlation tomography

The network imaging device worked using infrared radiation. It began its manufacture in 1993 AD, but it wasn't used extensively, and its presence was limited to large treatment centers. The year 2005 CE came to expand the use of the device, the reason for this is the low cost of its acquisition, nor there is a private center or clinic during this period that doesn't use an Optical correlation tomography.

The purchase of the device is still increasing. The reason for this is its ability to diagnose many eye diseases that were difficult for doctors to reach accurately in the past.

Infrared waves penetrate various areas of the retina, thereby obtaining very accurate details.

The Optical correlation tomography has improved from before. It helped in monitoring, diagnosing, and following the effect of treatments that are slapped for patients with retinal and macular eye diseases. The device helps in obtaining essential details of the retinal nerve fibers layer. That contributes to the follow-up of glaucoma cases (Diabetic retinopathy). The calibration or measurement of the retinal nerve fiber layer contributes to distinguishing between the correct eye and the eye with glaucoma.


What is the technical mechanism for making an OCT machine?

The mechanism of operation of the OCT Optical correlation tomography device is the use of optical interference, as these interventions help to imitate the tissue, and the device can imaging 2-3 mm below the surface of the tissue. The images are taken through a transparent window through light waves, as an alternative to ultrasound, or x-rays, or radio waves.


How important is an Optical correlation tomography?

At the beginning of the use of the Optical correlation tomography, the devices weren't characterized by modernity and sophistication. They were primitive, and recently the device has become more sophisticated. Many technical variables have occurred, and innovators are seeking to use X-rays in the future tomography device, but without the use of pigment, materials to clarify Variation in images. Below, we will review different aspects of the Optical correlation tomography:

In the event of a macular patch or retinal disorder; the diagnosis of an OCT becomes very important.

A CT scan shows essential information about the circulatory system in the retina.

Retinal examination with an Optical correlation tomography doesn't require much time.

The device helps in the early diagnosis of many eye disorders.


Is it necessary to use a drop to dilate the pupil of the eye when examining by the Optical correlation tomography?

Some types of drops are used to dilate the pupil of the eye, which helps in entering a quantity of light so that the doctor can see the posterior part of the eye more clearly. That helps identify some diseases at the beginning; Such as glaucoma, retinal detachment, and macular degeneration.

Applying the pupil dilatation drop leads to blurring of vision, which may affect work or drive for several hours. If this isn't appropriate for the patient at a specific time, it is essential to tell the doctor the appropriate time.


What are the factors that determine the use of a drop to dilate the pupil or not?

The factors that determine whether a drop can be used to expand the patient's pupil or not are as follows:

Patient age: For patients from age groups over sixty years, experts recommend periodic eye examination once every year or two with an Optical correlation tomography OCT.

Symptoms that appear: Sometimes, the patient's symptoms may not require the use of the extended drop according to the doctor's point of view, especially in the case of follow-up to a previously diagnosed and approved treatment.

The patient's general health: If the patient has diabetes or irregular blood pressure, this increases the possibility of the eye being exposed to the risk of several diseases. Therefore, periodic checks with pupil dilators are required.

Race: Some races are more prone to retinal diseases than others. In a study conducted showing that African and Latin symptoms increase the chance of developing glaucoma, it is preferable to examine the eye through the extended drop in age groups over the age of forty.

Pathological record: In the event of eye diseases and things were treated, this increases the chances of recurrence of the infection in the future, so it is crucial to carry out periodic checks using extended drops to avoid future risks.


What diseases can Optical correlation tomography help diagnose?

Many reasons require Optical correlation tomography to diagnose, and we will review the most prominent of them as follows:

Retinal atrophy:

The retinal atrophy is among the genetic diseases that cause segmental or progressive loss of vision. Most cases of atrophy are focused on the placental eye membrane. Still, in some cases, this is related to affect other areas of the body, in addition to the eye, as is the case in the injury some syndromes. This disease is among the rare diseases and can be diagnosed by Optical correlation tomography.

Candidates for refractive surgery:

Candidates undergo refractive surgery in the eye to be examined by an Optical correlation tomography (OCT) device and then diagnosed with the condition, after which they undergo surgery to correct length or nearsightedness or astigmatism, or to treat a conic corneal disorder. The laser is used to reshape the cornea's curvature, which helps to adjust the vision of the patient.


Description of the disease:

Among the important diseases that can be diagnosed through Optical correlation tomography is cataract, which is turbidity that appears in the eye's lens instead of appearing in the natural transparent way. That leads to the occurrence of opacity when seeing, and in the case of low vision to a low level; this requires a cataract removal.

Symptoms of the disease:

The patient's feeling that he sees through the white glass, or through a light curtain.

The patient feels a lack of light or fading color.

Dazzling vision, especially when driving at night, or when exposed to intense sunlight.

Change in the measurement of the medical eyeglasses, at short intervals, and as usual.

The causes of disease:

Many causes cause white water disease, the most prominent of which are:

Accidents and injuries: Accidents and injuries in the face area or direct eye strikes lead to cataracts.

Genetically: The genetic factor is among the factors that increase the susceptibility to cataracts, and is known as "congenital cataract."

Age: The higher the average age, the more disturbed and disturbed the vision occurs, which increases in the age group between 55-80 years.

Exposure to radiation: if exposed to elevated levels of radiation, this leads to cataracts.

Other reasons: Other reasons make there a high possibility of catching cataracts, including the use of some types of medications, the recurrence of eye infections, and the incidence of some diseases such as sugar.


Description of the disease:

Glaucoma is a common eye disease, as the optic nerve is damaged. High intraocular pressure leads to vision defects and often affects the age group over the age of sixty, and to a lesser extent, in the younger age groups.

Often the symptoms of this disease do not appear immediately after the injury. With the progression of the disease, the symptoms begin to appear, and among the crucial tests to diagnose that disease is Optical correlation tomography.

Symptoms of the disease:

The symptoms of glaucoma are redness of the eye, severe headache, the appearance of conditions around the light, eye pain, vomiting and nausea, and blurred vision. If treatment is neglected, this may lead to vision loss.

Risk factors:

Among the most prominent risk factors that lead to increased chances of catching cataract are:

Take corticosteroids for an extended period.

Increased intraocular pressure.

Injury to the eye or surgery in the eye.

Incidence of long or short-sightedness.

A family member becomes ill.

The risk of developing the disease increases for Latin or African races.

Thinning of the cornea.

Various diseases, such as heart disease, tuberculosis, sickle cell anemia, and high blood pressure.

Ages over sixty.

Methods of Treatment:

Microscopic surgery: This type of surgery is the basis for dealing with people with glaucoma. Ophthalmologists prefer that type of operation in the event of treatment failure by drops. The results of the success of microscopic surgery are approximately 90%, where the doctor makes openings in the eye to drain excess fluid in the eye.

Medicines: Different types of drops are used, and oral pills can also be used. Sometimes, intravenous injection is used to reduce high pressure in the eye.

Filtering surgery: microscopic surgery is used in filtering surgery with the use of a technical microscope. The doctor makes an incision in the sclera, and then removes one of the small parts in the overlap trabecular mesh, and then the excess water comes out through the incision. Consequently, a decrease in eye pressure occurs. In the recovery phase, the patient uses different anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory drops; this also helps speed up the healing process.

Laser surgery: the laser can be used; to drain excess fluid in the affected eye, however, laser treatment sessions can be repeated, which are entirely safe, and there are no damages to the eye tissue.


Description of the disease:

Retinoblastoma is among the types of malignancies that affect the retina. It most often occurs in young children, and to a lesser extent, in adults, and the retina consists of nervous tissue that transmits light located on the front part. Signals are sent to the brain through the optic nerve, this is then translated into images, and Optical correlation tomography OCT may help diagnose the tumor.

Symptoms of the disease:

The broadest retinoblastoma is the eye swelling and redness. The eyes appear in opposite directions, with a white color appearing in the pupil (center of the eye) at the brightness of a light.

The causes of disease:

Retinoblastoma arises as a result of abnormal development of the retina cells, and the tumor can travel to other parts of the body; Such as the spine and the brain, and in most affected cases, the cause of the genetic mutation that leads to the development of the tumor does not appear. However, there is a possibility that this is due to a genetic factor from one of the parents, where one study indicates that the gene can be passed from parents to children by 50% %, Mostly in early age, and the tumor affects the eyes significantly.

Complications of the disease:

The risk of recurrence of retinoblastoma increases in young children who were previously treated and treated; for this purpose, periodic appointments are set for examining children and follow-up repeatedly. And the importance of periodic screening in children with retinoblastoma arising from the transfer of hereditary genes from parents. In anticipation of the possibility of tumor transmission, Carcinogenic to any other places in the body.

Methods of Treatment:

After examining the patient by imaging the stratified network with other tests; the doctor can determine appropriate treatment methods, including the following:

Chemotherapy: helps reduce cancerous tissues in the eye, and this can be by intravenous injection, or through pills, which may be in conjunction with other treatment measures.

Radiation therapy: uses high bursts of energy. Such as proteins, or X-rays, use more than one type (such as internal radiation), where the device is placed in the tumor area. The radiation is directed to the tumor area, and that method is accurate and limits the chances of damage to healthy tissues in the eye. There is another type known as external radiation, where the radiation is issued from an external device that can be moved automatically towards the tissues affected by the tumor.

Traditional surgery: Conventional surgery is used to remove retinoblastoma, in which the doctor removes the tumor, preventing it from spreading to other areas of the body.

Other reasons:

Ophthalmologists can use other indications to diagnose diseases through Optical correlation tomography, including macular degeneration, optic neuritis, pre-macular fibrosis (macular degeneration), and macular perforation (macular degeneration), Epiretinal Membrane, Macula lutea.


How is an Optical correlation tomography used?

The patient places his head in the designated place. The technician adjusts the Optical correlation tomography device and then guides the patient by looking at the light target area in the machine for the device, after which the pictures are taken. Eye drops can be used to expand the pupil and obtain pictures of specific areas, and the examination takes only five minutes.

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