The macula lutea is a region in the center of the retina, with a diameter of 5 millimeters. It is a delicate tissue consisting of cells and some nerve fibers that are sensitive to light. It is located in the back of the eye. Macula lutea is the early stage of Macular Degeneration. It occurs as a result of dehydration and an increase in the thickness of the macula. In advanced stages of the disease, fluid accumulation occurs in that macula, and then inflammation, swelling, or bleeding occurs. This stage is known as macular degeneration.
The function of the retina is to transfer the light effects through the optic nerve to the brain to be converted into understandable images with details distinguished, in a way that helps to see clearly, and the Macula lutea has essential functions in our life. It helps identify people's faces and drive cars, reading, and distinguishing details.
What are the components of the macula in the retina?
The Macula lutea contains a cavity known as the central fovea, and oxygen reaches that region through the extended blood vessels that pass through the Bruch's membrane, a medial tissue between the fovea and placenta.
In the middle of the central flick, there are conical cells that are very sensitive to colors.
The number of cones (Cone cells) is approximately four and a half million cells, while the number of plant cells (rod cells) is approximately ninety-one million, in the single human eye. However, the cone cells' sensitivity to lighting is comparable with stick cells, but conical cells help distinguish colors and perceive the details of images. Because their response velocity is higher than for rods, the ratio between rods to cones is about 1: 3.
The sharpness of the central flick is 20/20. It is located in the opposite part of the eye lens, which is responsible for distinguishing colors and seeing the smallest details. Studies indicate that the highest sensitivity to the eye results from the fovea.
Two macula regions of the retina surround the central fovea. The first surrounding patch is 1.25 millimeters in diameter, and it contains five layers of the Retinal ganglion cell, and the second peripheral patch is 2.75 millimeters in diameter. Conic cells in the central fovea are 12 cells per 100 ومترm, and the third spot surrounds those mentioned above.
The information transmitted from the Macula lutea to the brain represents 50% of all translated and understood images, while the other 50% represents the information received; Through other retinal regions.
What are the symptoms of a macular disease?
The main symptoms of Macula lutea disease are poor ability to distinguish between colors and blurring objects. There is no pain in patients as a result, with difficulty seeing in the event of a low level of illumination.
What are the classifications of macular disease?
There are two main types of Macula lutea disease:
Dry spot (non-vascular): In that type, yellowish-colored transparent bark appeared in the macula, and for cases of a disease in its dry form, the percentage of blindness is limited, but it leads to a distortion of vision. Where the person sees things differently than usual, and in rare cases, visual complications can occur.
Moist spot (vascular): In that type, blood vessels grow abnormally from the layer of the placenta located below the retina. It becomes more prevalent in the event of damage to the membrane of the Brook, which is a connective tissue located between the placenta and retina, and leaks into these abnormal vessels blood and fat, and accumulates Below the Retinal pigment epithelium.
Doctor reports indicate that the incidence of wet type is between 10-20%, and this type may lead to a 90% loss of vision for the majority of people with yellow spot disease.
What risk factors increase the chances of developing the macular disease?
Age is among the risk factors that make the possibility of developing a Macula lutea disease. The disease often affects people over the age of 50. Some estimates issued by health institutions in the United States of America indicate that eight million people exceeded the age of sixty-five disease Macula lutea in 2020 AD. That disease may lead to a loss of vision gradually.
If one of the parents is afflicted with Macula lutea disease (macular edema), it is more likely for children to inherit the gene that causes the disease. Many medical studies indicate a relationship between family history and the disease.
Myopia is defined as the inability to see distant objects, with the ability to see nearby things, as light is reflected in the eye incorrectly, and myopia may occur gradually or quickly.
Among the most prominent symptoms of nearsightedness are blurring in the vision while looking at things that are located at a distance and headaches as a result of eye strain. The injured person needs to close the eye to clarifying vision partially. Vision is weak in those with nearsightedness during the night time.
Among the most prominent factors that lead to nearsightedness is eye fatigue due to reading without rest, as well as genetic factors in the case of the presence of one of the parents affected by myopia and environmental factors.
Among the most prominent complications caused by myopia are the inability to perform tasks typically, eye strain, and the possibility of developing Macula lutea disease.
Central retinal vein blockage or sub veins:
The arteries are responsible for transporting oxygenated blood to different parts of the body. At the same time, the veins are responsible for returning the oxygenated blood to the muscle of the body again.
A blockage of the main vein that drains blood from the retinal tissue, or in one of its associated branches, may become blocked. The likelihood of this occurring in older age groups or people with specific diseases increases. Such as diabetes, blood pressure, or glaucoma.
The blockage of the central retinal vein or its branches leads to poor vision, and this is not associated with any pain, and this happens quickly or gradually. Consequently, the blockage can cause bleeding, as there is a possibility of Macula lutea disease.
There are many complications caused by diabetes, the most famous of which is poor eyesight and other eye-related negatives, including:
Blurry vision, as the eye lenses are affected in the event of a high blood sugar level, and expansion occurs automatically, confuses, the appropriate level of blood sugar ranges between 70-130 mg/dl, before eating foods, and less than 180 mg/dl an hour after eating meals.
In the case of neglecting the treatment of eye blur, the darkening of the lens of the eye can occur due to the expansion of the lens.
In advanced stages, and without controlling the percentage of sugar in the body, blue water, or glaucoma, may occur due to the increase in the amount of fluids in the eye, the inability to drain them. The level of pressure in the eye increases with a gradual loss of vision.
The patient can develop Macula lutea disease; Diabetes due to damage to the blood vessels in the retina.
After cataract surgery:
Cataract surgery helps get rid of lens opacity, which occurs as a result of protein clumping in the lens area. The surgical intervention allows patients to restore a large part of normal vision. The duration of the cataract surgery is between 15-30 minutes.
White water disease is associated with many causes, the most prominent of which are: aging, so we find that it is more common in older age groups than others.
The cataract or cataract process focuses on removing the opaque lens, implanting an artificial lens inside the eye. The doctors use an ultrasound machine to break up the opaque lens into small particles. Then the doctor gently pulls it out through the suction and then follows the new artificial lens. That makes the doctor make a minimal incision, which reduces the risks involved in the operation, and all of which accelerate hospitalization.
Complications are rare after cataract surgery. The adverse effects that can result from the operation are increased intraocular pressure, Macula lutea disease, or any other retinopathy.
How can yellow spot disease be diagnosed?
There are many ways to diagnose Macula lutea disease, and we will review its details below:
One of the critical techniques in detecting Macula lutea disease and other eye diseases is examining the fundus examination by endoscopy. The doctor looks through the pupils and identifies any defects in the retinal blood vessels, the optic nerve, or the fundus, and the duration of that the examination is between five and ten minutes.
Fluorescence angiography is among the critical tests for the diagnosis of Macula lutea disease and other eye diseases. The history of that examination dates back more than half a century when the central vein is injected with a contrast dye, to identify any defects in the bloodstream in the eye, imaging of both sodium fluorescein and indocyanine is used at the same time, which helps in identifying the efficiency of blood flow inside the retinal blood vessels.
This examination is carried out through an intravenous examination of pigment materials and a follow-up of blood circulation in the eye through a computer screen. This procedure takes between 20-30 minutes.
It is forbidden to use this method to diagnose macular disease in pregnant women, allergy sufferers, or those with arterial, heart, or liver disease.
Optical Coherence Tomography:
Optical correlation tomography (OCT) is one of the pivotal methods for diagnosing Macula lutea disease and helps in obtaining accurate details of defects that appear in the retina and then identifying appropriate methods for the treatment of Macula lutea patch or perforation of degeneration. That device is used extensively beginning since 2005, the real revolution in the field of diagnosing eye diseases in general.
What are the ways to treat macular disease?
Treating Macula lutea disease depends on the patient's condition, and below we will explain the most prominent treatment options:
Various types of drops can be used to treat macular disease, including:
Cortisone drops: The substance cortisone (the steroid hormone) consists of twenty-one carbon atoms. That hormone is excreted naturally by the adrenal gland in the event of an overactive activity, which helps eliminate stress. The chemical composition of the cortisone is a cortico-steroid, and cortisone is used. In treating many diseases, the patient can take it orally, intravenously, or in the form of drops as in the treatment of Macula lutea disease, and cortisone works to strengthen the immune system and treat infections, pain, and swelling that accompanies it.
NSAIDs: NSAIDs are among the therapeutic analgesic anti-inflammatory drugs. They also help to reduce temperatures, and the mechanism of action of this type of medication depends on the inhibition of the enzyme cyclooxygenase. It helps the body to excrete the tromboxogen and prostaglandin substances, which makes the body feel these antihistamines are prescribed to eliminate inflammations that result from Macula lutea disease.
Injections into the vitreous:
Intra-vitreous injections are among the pivotal treatment methods for Macula lutea disease resulting in old age, diabetes, infection, or contamination. The vitreous is injected through antibiotics such as LUCENTISR, AVASTINR, BEVACIZUMAB, and ANTI VEGF.
A local anesthetic performs the vitreous injection, and before doing this, the doctor cleans the eyes and eyelids using antiseptics. The injection does not cause any pain after the completion of the operation. Still, there are a limited number of cases where he may be infected with the fly disease as a temporary symptom that ends after Limited time.
This treatment includes the use of laser beams in the area above the retina; Treating the Macula lutea disease or large areas of the retina, where the laser works to repair tears in the retina or damage abnormal tissues that affect the vision, and this helps to avoid the deterioration of the condition of the retina.
In 2014, the Korken foundation conducted a medical study on the effectiveness of some therapeutic drugs that prevent vascular growth in patients suffering from Macula lutea disease caused by a blockage in the central retinal vein. These treatments have succeeded in reducing symptoms of Macula lutea disease in a period Brief.
The National Institute of Health of the United States of America has published research results confirming the success of antioxidants and vitamins in controlling the macular disease. It is worth noting that if the matter is left untreated, this will lead to adverse changes in the efficiency of the central vision. Therefore, early detection for the age-related macular disease is among the things that help with treatment, reducing the possibility of reduced vision. Laser treatment is only possible for a limited percentage of those affected.