The examination of the bottom of the eye, or what is known as the endoscopy, in which the doctor looks through the bottom of the eye viewfinder to the posterior part of the eye, which is called the retina. Which also identifies the condition of the optic nerve, the inner eye cavity, and blood vessels.
This procedure is essential to determine the extent of the risk to the patient's eyes, especially those who have diabetes or high blood pressure. Many reasons lead the doctor to Fundus examination, including an increased risk for a person due to exposure of some members of his family to one of the Known eye diseases, such as glaucoma, strabismus, or others.
Why is the fundus examined?
There are many reasons why a doctor must apply a patient's fundus examination, including:
If the patient is afflicted with high intraocular pressure or so-called glaucoma.
People with optic nerve damage.
Blurring or blurring of vision.
People with a macular puncture.
People with a retinal detachment.
Having different eye infections.
Skin cancer, diabetes, or an increase in blood pressure.
Essential procedures before Fundus examination
Before starting the Fundus examination, the doctor makes a set of necessary equipment for this procedure, which are:
Initially, the doctor uses the eye expansion drop, which helps to expand the pupil and facilitate the doctor's task in detecting the Fundus examination in a proper, more efficient way.
Bearing in mind that the patient, when completing the procedure, must use sunglasses, due to the blurring of vision, due to the drop that was used to expand the pupil of the eye.
It is better for those with jobs that require a clear vision to take a leave of at least 24 hours until the view returns to normal and can carry out his work duties.
Some medications somehow interact with the eye fundus drop, so the patient must be honest with his doctor and inform him of all medications he is currently taking. Or those he was taking in the recent past; it may affect the fundus examination.
The doctor discusses with the patient about the family history of various eye injuries, especially glaucoma or glaucoma. To make sure that the patient does not have the same diseases; which may prevent it from being used as a drop in the fundus expansion that increases the increase in intraocular pressure.
How is the fundus examined?
After the doctor puts a drop in the bottom of the Fundus examination, the patient may feel slight pain or sting in the eye, and he looks at the back of the eye through three methods:
These procedures may be used in whole or in one of them depending on the patient's condition.
Fundus examination by direct examination
The doctor uses the ophthalmoscope, with the lights turned off at the place of examination. The patient sits facing the doctor who Fundus examination of the eye with this telescope, which directs a light beam to the pupil of the eye, to facilitate looking at the back of the eye and identifying its health. In it, the doctor asks his patient to look in a specific direction.
In this method, the fundus drop is not necessary for the examination process.
Fundus examination by indirect examination
In this procedure, the doctor asks the patient to lie down or tilt his body slightly, and the doctor wears a device on his head that produces a bright light that helps in the detection of the Fundus examination.
The doctor may apply pressure to the eye a little while directing you to look at different directions so that he can perform a Fundus examination and vision of the retina and the rest of the inner eye.
Fundus examination by slit lamp
This procedure is based on the patient's view of the light produced by the Slit lamp, which places the bottom of the face on the base designated for that, which puts it in a light-facing position. The doctor also requests that you move your eyes in more than one direction so that he can examine the entire fundus using the microscope magnifies the front part of the eye.
The patient may not be comfortable after completing the examination because of fog in the vision, so he must accompany him accompanying him for not being able to walk alone. Also, he will not be able to drive the car for several hours due to the drop in the base of his eye.
Eye examination for infants
In the case of the infant, vision is not yet regular, but any problem that may affect the vision system has to be seen from birth and over the following years of life, which is easy to deal with, as it is challenging to treat with age, it must be identified.
In the beginning, and since the birth of the child, the doctor examines the fundus and determines whether his vision is healthy or not. Especially if the child was born at a date earlier than the original date of his birth, or that there is a family history of eye diseases in the family, or that the mother had experienced while carrying health problems.
Six months after the age of the newborn, he must undergo a Fundus examination again.
Then, at pre-school age, a further examination of the fundus is required for the doctor to ensure that there is no complaint about seeing the child, which may be an obstacle to his academic achievement.
One of the most common eye diseases in children is myopia, in which the doctor performs the measurement of the child's eyesight and determines the sizes of the eyeglasses that he will wear.
If the child is confirmed to have astigmatism, the child will undergo a comprehensive examination.
Reasons for examining the bottom of the eye for infants
If the fundus is examined, there is early identification of the problem even before it occurs, which makes its treatment quickly more efficient.
If the child has a vision problem.
Children with special medical conditions, such as arthritis, Down syndrome, or people with neurofibromatosis, are more likely to have future vision problems.
The child has congenital glaucoma, which is caused by hereditary causes or at risk during pregnancy.
A family history of nearsightedness.
Significantly low birth weight.
The mother is exposed to a viral infection during pregnancy, or she is infected with HIV, reproductive diseases, rubella, or if the mother is a smoker, or is addicted to different types of drugs.
Having difficulty in childbirth may increase your child's likelihood of developing eye diseases.
Some eye diseases in infants
It is necessary to do an eye examination for infants to get early identification of some possible diseases, including:
Increased water and red eyes.
Difficulty focusing on vision.
Infant eyesight tests
There are some necessary tests that the doctor performs, which makes it easier for him to know the child's vision condition.
Exposing the child to the sudden light, then turning it off, and so on, which results in opening and closing the child's pupil.
The object tracking test, which a healthy child has mastered since the third month of life, it can track light, people, or signs around it.
Focus ability test. Through this test, the doctor covers one eye for the child, leaves the other open, and records his ability to focus his eyes on specific objects that the doctor places in front of the child's open eye.
Measuring the eyesight of the child before entering the first levels of education, when he is three years of age. By identifying the symbols that the doctor puts away from him with a specific distance and measuring the eyesight by visualizing the fundus of the eye and or identifying the problems of short-sightedness and long-sightedness of the child with appropriate procedures so.
Vision measurement methods
It is known that the usual result of the sight scale is 6/6, and the number 6 in the numerator indicates the distance between the eye and between the objects to be seen. The number 6 in the place is the maximum distance of the natural eye or the strength of the natural vision of the eye.
The meaning of a person is his 6/6 scale, i.e., the right eye can see at a distance of 6 meters, and the 6/9 scale means that the right natural eye can see things at a distance of 9 meters, which another person can only see at a distance of 6 Meters.
Among the most important ways to measure vision:
It is a board consisting of several rows number eight. We find that the size of the letters written on this plate gradually decreases from one row to another, and the doctor performs an eye examination by placing the patient at a distance of 6 meters from the plate, and referring to a specific letter and asks the patient to clarify. It has the direction of the opening of the letter, is it heading to the north or south, or right or left, and accordingly, the doctor determines the efficiency of the eye.
It is one of the methods developed to measure the patient's eyesight, in which he is subjected to several different tests, based on which his vision scale is determined. It is considered most beneficial for children in the first years of life, who suffer from learning difficulties, and depends mainly on measuring the child's visual perception among these tests:
The constancy of the shap subtest
These are forms that are presented to the patient, and they are of different sizes, but there are some minor differences between them.
It is through him that the doctor knows how the patient's visual ability to understand the intricate complexities of shapes.
Position IN space subtest
And in it, the patient learns the difference between some solids that follow successively.
Spatial relations test
In it, the doctor asks the patient to use the points to copy the lines he sees in front of him, and they are different in the angles and lengths, and through this procedure, the child's ability to analyze is identified by focusing the vision.
EyeHand coortion subtest
In it, the doctor learns about the patient's abilities to draw some curves, lines, and angles of different widths.